Despite providing fresh air circulation and reducing excess humidity, bathroom fans can cause serious safety concerns if not properly installed or maintained. One crucial step in the installation process is the inclusion of a fan isolator switch. Here’s a simple guide to help you install an isolator switch for your bathroom fan.
Before you lift a screwdriver, however, do note that this is a job for professional electricians. Because of the extra safety measures required, bathrooms do not fall under the “like for like” rules in the Building Regulations, Electrical safety: Approved Document P. In other words, the work will need to be carried out by a certified contractor, not just a competent homeowner. This article should be useful for electricians, but for regular homeowners, it should only be used as a guide to the nature of the work.
What is the difference between an isolator and a circuit-breaker?
Isolators and circuit breakers are both crucial components in electrical systems, but they serve different functions and operate differently.
An isolator is a mechanical switch that completely disconnects or isolates part of a circuit from the system when it is under maintenance or not in use. It ensures that the circuit is completely de-energised for service or maintenance and safeguards anyone working on the relevant component or circuit from electrical injuries. An isolator switch should be operated only when the circuit is under no-load conditions since it does not have an arc quenching mechanism.
On the other hand, a circuit breaker is an automatic electrical switch that protects an electrical circuit from damage caused by an overload or a short circuit. Its key function is to interrupt current flow in the system after a fault is detected. Unlike an isolator, it can be operated automatically or manually under both loaded and no-load conditions. It is designed to disconnect power supply rapidly to prevent damage to the circuit that could result from excessive current flow.
You can find circuit breakers in special plug sockets (often used with lawnmowers). They are also used in consumer units as modern replacements for fuses.
With the above caveats in mind, here’s a step-by-step account of how to install the isolator switch for your bathroom fan.
1. Safety first
Before starting on any electrical work, make sure the power supply is off. All circuits and equipment should be de-energised to prevent accidentally coming into contact with live wires. It’s far better to isolate the whole building or apartment rather than assuming the stickers on the consumer unit’s MCBs are correct (they sometimes aren’t). Follow up by testing the electrics with a voltage tester at the fan and existing switch location, if possible.
2. Prepare location
Pick an appropriate spot for mounting the isolator switch on the wall. It should be at least 1.5 meters above the floor level to keep it out of reach of children. It should also be out of reach of anyone using the shower, preferably outside the room. Survey the wall to determine what type it is – i.e. plastered brick, bare brick, concrete, stud wall, fibreboard etc. That will determine the types of tools, such as drills, chisels or saws you’ll need.
3. Gather tools
To begin, gather all the tools you anticipate using. You’ll need screwdrivers, wire cutters, a voltage tester, a drill, and an isolator switch. As mentioned above, you’ll also need different tools depending on the type of wall you’re attaching the switch to.
4. Identify wiring
Trace the cable that comes from the fan and goes to the consumer unit. This is the cable you’ll be connecting the switch to. Note the colours of the wires. If they are black and red rather than brown, blue and yellow/green, they are probably quite old, so consider replacing them.
5. Check the isolator switch
Generally, isolator switches have three terminals: Live, Neutral, and Earth. These correspond to the brown (live), blue (neutral), and green/yellow (earth) wires from the cable. They should correspond to the signs on the terminals.
6. Wire the isolator
Firstly, unscrew the terminal screws on the existing isolator switch. Then, strip the outer insulation from the cable to expose about 2cm of the inner wires. Connect these wires to their corresponding terminals on the switch. If it’s a completely new installation, or if you’re connecting a switch to an existing circuit, you’ll need to make sure your wiring is of sufficient rating – check the fan’s specifications for details. Run the wiring from the consumer unit to the isolator, and from the isolator to the fan, in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions. If the isolator is of metal construction, remember that it too needs to be earthed.
7. Secure the isolator
Once wired, carefully push the cables back into the wall, and screw the isolator onto the wall. Now, fix the cover back on the switch.
8. Test operation
Finally, turn the main power back on and test your fan isolator switch. If the fan functions as normal and can be turned off by the isolator switch, installation is successful.
In essence, an isolator switch is no different to a regular switch as far as wiring is concerned. Just make sure you’re using a professional electrician if you’re ever working in the bathroom, kitchen or outdoors, or if you’re installing a new switch from scratch rather than replacing one.